How much threat does the hottest UAV pose to civil

2022-08-14
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How much threat does UAV pose to civil airliners

news: on a warm night last year, two UH-60M Black Hawk helicopters belonging to the U.S. military were on a low altitude patrol over Staten Island in New York City for the annual meeting of the United Nations General Assembly held near Manhattan. At sunset, a shoebox sized UAV collided with a helicopter in the formation, which damaged the helicopter's main rotor, window frame and antenna system. Afterwards, the inspection of the nearby airport revealed something that had never happened before. A civilian UAV collided with a manned aircraft in U.S. airspace. The U.S. military, the National Transportation Safety Commission and other relevant agencies are making every effort to investigate the course and cause of the accident

although these issues are important, aviation researchers are more interested in studying the hazards that small UAVs can cause, such as the 1.4kg four rotor UAV that caused the air collision on Staten Island. These UAVs are likely to pose a threat to helicopters and low altitude passenger aircraft. However, the risk data related to light unmanned aerial vehicles controlled by aviation safety agencies are very few. The Federal Aviation Administration predicts that 7million unmanned aerial vehicles will be sold in the United States in 2020

the collision threat of UAV has attracted enough attention of pilots. Sometimes, pilots even suspend some rescue missions because of fear of collision with UAV. Last August, firefighters suspended helicopter operations when they were carrying out fire-fighting operations on the rice ridge in Montana, USA, because an unauthorized drone was found in the nearby sky. In the following months in Houston, government agencies issued a preliminary warning not to allow private drones to approach the low altitude aircraft used to locate and evacuate the victims of Hurricane Harvey. However, there is still controversy in the aviation industry about whether the risk of collision with UAVs is greater than the consequences of stopping aircraft for disaster relief operations

helicopters flying at low altitude during search and rescue missions are more vulnerable to drones because they share the same airspace with consumer and commercial drones. Professor Ian Horsfall from the school of armor systems and national defense Sciences, Cranfield University, said that not only some uncontrolled UAVs that appear in the wrong place, but also some UAVs controlled by licensed pilots may collide with helicopters, which is caused by the flying nature of helicopters. Horsefall said. The US military Black Hawk helicopter was hit when flying about 150 meters above Staten Island. Small unmanned aerial vehicles are restricted in most areas of New York City, but they are allowed to fly in some places, including latourette park on Staten Island, as long as the flying altitude of unmanned aerial vehicles is less than 120 meters

fixed wing aircraft will not stay in the flight level of four axis UAV for too long, but they will still be seriously injured in case of impact. Just a month after the Staten Island accident, a drone collided with a twin engine propeller plane in Quebec, Canada. When carrying out the runway approach procedure of Jean Le sarge International Airport, the bicky Air China King A100 aircraft collided with a drone on its left wing at an altitude of 450 meters. In the subsequent ground inspection, the upper 1 of the left wing should be equipped with: an inner diameter ruler, a guiding gauge, an electronic balance, a thickness gauge, a moisture meter, a cardboard bursting tester, and a slight scratch was found on the surface of the layer and the deicing system. Marc garueau, the Minister of transport of Canada, said at the press conference that if the drone crashed through the cockpit windshield or destroyed the aircraft engine, it could lead to disastrous consequences

indeed, the most serious situation is that the drone breaks through the cockpit windshield of the low altitude aircraft or causes the main engine to stop in the air. However, according to Javid bayandor's research, the magnitude of these hazards does not depend on the types of UAVs and manned aircraft. Javid bayandor is the founder and director of the aerospace structures and hybrid crashworthiness (crash) laboratory at the State University of New York at Buffalo. Previously, at Virginia Tech and State University, bayandor and his colleagues spent several years sorting out the model data of more than 150 unmanned aerial vehicles and simulating the threat of these unmanned aerial vehicles to aircraft through computers. We not only classify UAVs, but also find their collision traces on different types of aircraft and engines, bayandor said. At the same time, we are also studying possible ways to reduce damage

in 2016, the UK Department of transport and the military aviation authority believed that the collision caused by drones may be more serious than bird strike, because birds are softer. British researchers launched customized drones of different sizes to impact the windshields of helicopters and large aircraft. In this experiment, researchers found that 1.5kg drones may puncture the windshields of aircraft

consumer UAVs pose only a very small threat to high-altitude commercial aircraft; A jet will only share the same airspace with the UAV when taking off and landing, and for the UAV, the flight speed of the jet is very fast. The biggest risk may be that the drone is sucked in by the turbine engine. Bayandor's crash lab once produced a simulation video to show how UAVs are cut into pieces in jet engines. These debris sometimes collide around the engine at high speed and continue to damage the engine. Bayandor said

but researchers believe that, on the whole, the collision threat of UAV to any kind of aircraft remains at a relatively low level. At present, there are not many cases of accidents caused by UAV impact or near miss. In April 2016, a study of the mercatus center of George Mason University studied the hazards of four axis UAVs by analyzing bird strike data. Researchers believe that even if there are about 10million birds in U.S. airspace, only a hundred bird strike accidents occur every year. This study believes that compared with such a large number of birds in the airspace, bird strikes that cause harm are very rare. At the same time, the report points out that UAVs weighing at least 2 kg are required to cause harm to aircraft

there are not many drone collisions yet. Considering the number of flights now, I think my suspicion is correct, that is, planes will not crash as often as the media sometimes make us worry. Mykel kochend, an aeronautical engineer and director of the Intelligent Systems Laboratory at Stanford University, stopped the tensile and shear experiments between the moving beam and the upper beam, erfer said. He believes that the recent accidents in the United States and Canada are an alarm for UAV operators, that is, the potential impact on aviation safety

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